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WebOptions are processed in command line order so be sure to use these options before the -draw option. Strings that begin with a number must be quoted (e.g. use '' rather than Drawing primitives conform to the Magick Vector Graphics format. Note, drawing requires an alpha channel WebPresidential politics and political news from News about political parties, political campaigns, world and international politics, politics news headlines plus in-depth features and Webthe original print PDF of the as enacted version that was used for the print copy; correction slips; Click 'View More' or select 'More Resources' tab for additional information including: lists of changes made by and/or affecting this legislation item; confers power and blanket amendment details; all formats of all associated documents WebPandoc User’s Guide Synopsis. pandoc [options] [input-file]. Description. Pandoc is a Haskell library for converting from one markup format to another, and a command-line tool that uses this library.. Pandoc can convert between numerous markup and word processing formats, including, but not limited to, various flavors of Markdown, HTML, LaTeX and Web01/08/ · Binomial logistic regression (BLR) was used to determine the influence of age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and tobacco consumption on the occurrence of impaired lung function at a 95% ... read more

com, and your PC. Even the photos and videos imported from your DSLR, GoPro, or drone to your Mac appear on all your iCloud Photos—enabled devices. And since your collection is organized the same way across your Apple devices, navigating your library always feels familiar.

Now family memories are in one place for everyone to enjoy. Smart ways to share make it easy to share just the photos you want. And edits and changes sync everywhere, so if one person organizes the collection, everyone benefits.

Create standout photos with a comprehensive set of powerful but easy-to-use editing tools. Instantly transform photos taken in Portrait mode with five different studio-quality lighting effects.

Choose Enhance to improve your photo with just a click. Then use a filter to give it a new look. Markup lets you add text, shapes, sketches, or a signature to your images. And you can turn Live Photos into fun, short video loops to share. You can also make edits to photos using third-party app extensions like Pixelmator, or edit a photo in an app like Photoshop and save your changes to your Photos library.

Bring even more life to your Live Photos. When you edit a Live Photo, the Loop effect can turn it into a continuous looping video that you can experience again and again.

Try Bounce to play the action forward and backward. You can also trim, mute, and select a key photo for each Live Photo. With just a click, you can apply one of nine photo filters inspired by classic photography styles to your photos.

Use the Share menu to easily share photos via Shared Albums and AirDrop. Or send photos to your favorite photo sharing destinations, such as Facebook and Twitter. You can also customize the menu and share directly to other compatible sites that offer sharing extensions. Making high-quality projects and special gifts for loved ones is easier than ever with Photos.

Caption meta-data is not visible on the image itself. To do that use the -annotate or -draw options instead. produces an image caption of MIFF:bird. miff x assuming that the image bird. miff has a width of and a height of Specify those image color channels to which subsequent operators are limited. Choose from: Red , Green , Blue , Alpha , Gray , Cyan , Magenta , Yellow , Black , Opacity , Index , RGB , RGBA , CMYK , or CMYKA.

The channels above can also be specified as a comma-separated list or can be abbreviated as a concatenation of the letters ' R ', ' G ', ' B ', ' A ', ' O ', ' C ', ' M ', ' Y ', ' K '. The numerals 0 to 31 may also be used to specify channels, where 0 to 5 are: ' 0 ' equals Red or Cyan ' 1 ' equals Green or Magenta ' 2 ' equals Blue or Yellow ' 3 ' equals Black ' 4 ' equals Alpha or Opacity ' 5 ' equals Index.

For example, to only select the Red and Blue channels you can use any of the following:. All the channels that are present in an image can be specified using the special channel type All. Not all operators are 'channel capable', but generally any operators that are generally 'grey-scale' image operators, will understand this setting. See individual operator documentation. On top of the normal channel selection an extra flag can be specified, ' Sync '.

This is turned on by default and if set means that operators that understand this flag should perform: cross-channel synchronization of the channels.

If not specified, then most grey-scale operators will apply their image processing operations to each individual channel as specified by the rest of the -channel setting completely independently from each other. For example for operators such as -auto-level and -auto-gamma the color channels are modified together in exactly the same way so that colors will remain in-sync.

Without it being set, then each channel is modified separately and independently, which may produce color distortion. The -morphology ' Convolve ' method and the -compose mathematical methods, also understands the ' Sync ' flag to modify the behavior of pixel colors according to the alpha channel if present. That is to say it will modify the image processing with the understanding that fully-transparent colors should not contribute to the final result.

Basically, by default, operators work with color channels in synchronous, and treats transparency as special, unless the -channel setting is modified so as to remove the effect of the ' Sync ' flag. How each operator does this depends on that operators current implementation.

Not all operators understands this flag at this time, but that is changing. By default, ImageMagick sets -channel to the value ' RGBK,sync ', which specifies that operators act on all color channels except the transparency channel, and that all the color channels are to be modified in exactly the same way, with an understanding of transparency depending on the operation being applied.

Options that are affected by the -channel setting include the following. These operators have yet to be made to understand the newer 'Sync' flag. For example -threshold will by default grayscale the image before thresholding, if no -channel setting has been defined.

This is not 'Sync flag controlled, yet. Also some operators such as -blur , -gaussian-blur , will modify their handling of the color channels if the ' alpha ' channel is also enabled by -channel. Generally this done to ensure that fully-transparent colors are treated as being fully-transparent, and thus any underlying 'hidden' color has no effect on the final results.

Typically resulting in 'halo' effects. The newer -morphology convolution equivalents however does have a understanding of the 'Sync' flag and will thus handle transparency correctly by default.

As an alpha channel is optional within images, some operators will read the color channels of an image as a greyscale alpha mask, when the image has no alpha channel present, and the -channel setting tells the operator to apply the operation using alpha channels. The -clut operator is a good example of this. The expression consists of one or more channels, either mnemonic or numeric e. red or 0, green or 1, etc. For example, to create 3 grayscale images from the red, green, and blue channels of an image, use:.

Here we take an sRGB image and a grayscale image and inject the grayscale image into the alpha channel:. Add -debug pixel prior to the -channel-fx option to track the channel morphology.

The width and height given in the of the size portion of the geometry argument give the number of columns and rows to remove. The offset portion of the geometry argument is influenced by a -gravity setting, if present. The -chop option removes entire rows and columns, and moves the remaining corner blocks leftward and upward to close the gaps.

While it can remove internal rows and columns of pixels, it is more typically used with as -gravity setting and zero offsets so as to remove a single edge from an image. Compare this to -shave which removes equal numbers of pixels from opposite sides of the image. Using -chop effectively undoes the results of a -splice that was given the same geometry and -gravity settings.

The image is divided into tiles of width and height pixels. The tile size should be larger than the size of features to be preserved and respects the aspect ratio of the image.

to force an exact tile width and height. number-bins is the number of histogram bins per tile min 2, max The number of histogram bins should be smaller than the number of pixels in a single tile. clip-limit is the contrast limit for localized changes in contrast. A clip-limit of 2 to 3 is a good starting place e. Very large values will let the histogram equalization do whatever it wants to do, that is result in maximal local contrast.

The value 1 will result in the original image. Note, if the number of bins and the clip-limit are ommitted, they default to and no clipping respectively. Set each pixel whose value is below zero to zero and any the pixel whose value is above the quantum range to the quantum range e. The -clip feature requires SVG support. If the SVG delegate library is not present, the option is ignored.

Use the alpha channel of the current image as a mask. Any areas that is white is not modified by any of the 'image processing operators' that follow, until the mask is removed. Pixels in the black areas of the clip mask are modified per the requirements of the operator.

In some ways this is similar to though not the same as defining a rectangular -region , or using the negative of the mask third image in a three image -composite , operation. This is identical to -clip except choose a specific clip path in the event the image has more than one path available. ImageMagick supports UTF-8 encoding.

Inside parenthesis where the operator is normally used it will make a clone of the images from the last 'pushed' image sequence, and adds them to the end of the current image sequence. Outside parenthesis not recommended it clones the images from the current image sequence. Specify the image by its index in the sequence.

The first image is index 0. Specify a range of images with a dash e. Separate multiple indexes with commas but no spaces e. Replace the channel values in the first image using each corresponding channel in the second image as a c olor l ook u p t able. The second LUT image is ordinarily a gradient image containing the histogram mapping of how each channel should be modified. Typically it is a either a single row or column image of replacement color values. If larger than a single row or column, values are taken from a diagonal line from top-left to bottom-right corners.

The lookup is further controlled by the -interpolate setting, which is especially handy for an LUT which is not the full length needed by the ImageMagick installed Quality Q level. Good settings for this are ' bilinear ' and ' catrom '. Catom can return a useful second-order continuity. This operator is especially suited to replacing a grayscale image with a specific color gradient from the CLUT image. Only the channel values defined by the -channel setting will have their values replaced.

If either the image being modified, or the lookup image, contains no transparency i. That is you can use a grayscale CLUT image to adjust a existing images alpha channel, or you can color a grayscale image using colors form CLUT containing the desired colors, including transparency. See also -hald-clut which replaces colors according to the lookup of the full color RGB value from a 2D representation of a 3D color cube.

Fully define the look of each frame of an GIF animation sequence, to form a 'film strip' animation. Overlay each image in an image sequence according to its -dispose meta-data, to reproduce the look of an animation at each point in the animation sequence. All images should be the same size, and are assigned appropriate GIF disposal settings for the animation to continue working as expected as a GIF animation. Such frames are more easily viewed and processed than the highly optimized GIF overlay images.

The animation can be re-optimized after processing using the -layers method ' optimize ', although there is no guarantee that the restored GIF animation optimization is better than the original. Colorize the image by an amount specified by value using the color specified by the most recent -fill setting. Specify the amount of colorization as a percentage. Separate colorization values can be applied to the red, green, and blue channels of the image with a comma-delimited list of colorization values e.

This option only applies when the default X server visual is PseudoColor or GrayScale. Refer to -visual for more details. By default, a shared colormap is allocated. The image shares colors with other X clients.

Some image colors could be approximated, therefore your image may look very different than intended. If private is chosen, the image colors appear exactly as they are defined. However, other clients may go technicolor when the image colormap is installed. The actual number of colors in the image may be less than your request, but never more.

Note that this a color reduction option. Images with fewer unique colors than specified by value will have any duplicate or unused colors removed. The ordering of an existing color palette may be altered. When converting an image from color to grayscale, it is more efficient to convert the image to the gray colorspace before reducing the number of colors. Refer to the color reduction algorithm for more details. This option permits saturation changes, hue rotation, luminance to alpha, and various other effects.

Although variable-sized transformation matrices can be used, typically one uses a 5x5 matrix for an RGBA image and a 6x6 for CMYKA or RGBA with offsets. The matrix is similar to those used by Adobe Flash except offsets are in column 6 rather than 5 in support of CMYKA images and offsets are normalized divide Flash offset by For a more accurate color conversion to or from the linear RGB, CMYK, or grayscale colorspaces, use the -profile option.

Note, ImageMagick assumes the sRGB colorspace if the image format does not indicate otherwise. For colorspace conversion, the gamma function is first removed to produce linear RGB. Return a binary image where all colors within the specified range are changed to white.

All other colors are changed to black. The channels previously set by -channel of the combined image are taken from the grayscale values of each image in the sequence, in order.

For the default -channel setting of RGB , this means the first image is assigned to the Red channel, the second to the Green channel, the third to the Blue. This option can be thought of as the inverse to -separate , so long as the channel settings are the same. Thus, in the following example, the final image should be a copy of the original. This option sets the comment meta-data of an image read in after this option has been given. To modify a comment of images already in memory use " -set comment ".

The comment can contain special format characters listed in the Format and Print Image Properties. These attributes are expanded when the comment is finally assigned to the individual images. If the first character of string is , the image comment is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string. Comment meta-data are not visible on the image itself.

produces an image comment of MIFF:bird. Mathematically and visually annotate the difference between an image and its reconstruction. This is a convert version of " compare " for two same sized images. The syntax is as follows, but other metrics are allowed. See Alpha Compositing for a detailed discussion of alpha compositing.

This setting affects image processing operators that merge two or more images together in some way. This includes the operators, -compare , -composite , -layers composite, -flatten , -mosaic , -layers merge, -border , -frame , and -extent.

Take the first image 'destination' and overlay the second 'source' image according to the current -compose setting. The location of the 'source' or 'overlay' image is controlled according to -gravity , and -geometry settings. If a third image is given this is treated as a grayscale blending 'mask' image relative to the first 'destination' image.

This mask is blended with the source image. However for the ' displace ' compose method, the mask is used to provide a separate Y-displacement image instead. If a -compose method requires extra numerical arguments or flags these can be provided by setting the -set ' option:compose:args ' appropriately for the compose method. Some -compose methods can modify the 'destination' image outside the overlay area.

It is disabled by default. The SVG compositing specification requires that color and opacity values range between zero and QuantumRange inclusive.

Use pixel compression specified by type when writing the image. Choices are: None , BZip , Fax , Group4 , JPEG , JPEG , Lossless , LZW , RLE or Zip. The default is the compression type of the specified image file. If LZW compression is specified but LZW compression has not been enabled, the image data is written in an uncompressed LZW format that can be read by LZW decoders. This may result in larger-than-expected GIF files. Lossless refers to lossless JPEG, which is only available if the JPEG library has been patched to support it.

Use of lossless JPEG is generally not recommended. When writing an ICO file, you may request that the images be encoded in PNG format, by specifying Zip compression. When writing a JNG file, specify Zip compression to request that the alpha channel be encoded in PNG "IDAT" format, or JPEG to request that it be encoded in JPG "JDAA" format.

Use the -quality option to set the compression level to be used by JPEG, PNG, MIFF, and MPEG encoders. Use the -sampling-factor option to set the sampling factor to be used by JPEG, MPEG, and YUV encoders for down-sampling the chroma channels. connected-components labeling detects connected regions in an image, choose from 4 or 8 way connectivity.

This option enhances the intensity differences between the lighter and darker elements of the image. Increase the contrast in an image by stretching the range of intensity values.

While performing the stretch, black-out at most black-point pixels and white-out at most white-point pixels. Prior to ImageMagick 6.

Note that -contrast-stretch 0 will modify the image such that the image's min and max values are stretched to 0 and QuantumRange , respectively, without any loss of data due to burn-out or clipping at either end. This is not the same as -normalize , which is equivalent to -contrast-stretch 0. Internally operator works by creating a histogram bin, and then uses that bin to modify the image. As such some colors may be merged together when they originally fell into the same 'bin'.

Specifying any other -channel setting will normalize the RGB channels independently. See also -auto-level for a 'perfect' normalization of mathematical images. The kernel is a matrix specified as a comma-separated list of integers with no spaces , ordered left-to right, starting with the top row.

Note that the -convolve operator supports the -bias setting. This option shifts the convolution so that positive and negative results are relative to a user-specified bias value. Without an output bias, the negative values is clipped at zero. The width and height of the geometry argument give the size of the image that remains after cropping, and x and y in the offset if present gives the location of the top left corner of the cropped image with respect to the original image.

To specify the amount to be removed, use -shave instead. If the x and y offsets are present, a single image is generated, consisting of the pixels from the cropping region. The offsets specify the location of the upper left corner of the cropping region measured downward and rightward with respect to the upper left corner of the image.

If the -gravity option is present with NorthEast , East , or SouthEast gravity, it gives the distance leftward from the right edge of the image to the right edge of the cropping region. Similarly, if the -gravity option is present with SouthWest , South , or SouthEast gravity, the distance is measured upward between the bottom edges. If the x and y offsets are omitted, a set of tiles of the specified geometry, covering the entire input image, is generated.

The rightmost tiles and the bottom tiles are smaller if the specified geometry extends beyond the dimensions of the input image.

You can add the to the geometry argument to equally divide the image into the number of tiles generated. By adding a exclamation character flag to the geometry argument, the cropped images virtual canvas page size and offset is set as if the geometry argument was a viewport or window.

This means the canvas page size is set to exactly the same size you specified, the image offset set relative top left corner of the region cropped. If the cropped image 'missed' the actual image on its virtual canvas, a special single pixel transparent 'missed' image is returned, and a 'crop missed' warning given. This is especially true when you are going to write to an image format such as PNG that supports an image offset. The events parameter specifies which events are to be logged.

It can be either None , All , Trace , or a comma-separated list consisting of one or more of the following domains: Accelerate , Annotate , Blob , Cache , Coder , Configure , Deprecate , Exception , Locale , Render , Resource , Security , TemporaryFile , Transform , X11 , or User. The User domain is normally empty, but developers can log user events in their private copy of ImageMagick. Decipher and restore pixels that were previously transformed by -encipher.

For more information, see the webpage, ImageMagick: Encipher or Decipher an Image. Given a sequence of images all the same size, such as produced by -coalesce , replace the second and later images, with a smaller image of just the area that changed relative to the previous image. The resulting sequence of images can be used to optimize an animation sequence, though will not work correctly for GIF animations when parts of the animation can go from opaque to transparent.

This option is actually equivalent to the -layers method ' compare-any '. Add specific global settings generally used to control coders and image processing operations. This option creates one or more definitions for coders and decoders to use while reading and writing image data.

Definitions are generally used to control image file format coder modules, and image processing operations, beyond what is provided by normal means. Defined settings are listed in -verbose information " info: " output format as "Artifacts". If value is missing for a definition, an empty-valued definition of a flag is created with that name. The same 'artifact' settings can also be defined using the -set "option: key " " value " option, which also allows the use of Format and Print Image Properties in the defined value.

The option and key are case-independent they are converted to lowercase for use within the decoders while the value is case-dependent. See ImageMagick Defines for a list of recognized defines. For example:. Set attributes of the image registry by prefixing the value with registry:. For example, to set a temporary path to put work files, use:. The default is no delay between each showing of the image sequence. The default ticks-per-second is However, if the image delay is 40 or 50, the delay it is changed to Negative indexes are relative to the end of the sequence, for example, -1 represents the last image of the sequence.

Separate indexes with a comma e. Use -delete to delete the entire image sequence. You can also delete images from the persistent registry, e. Set the horizontal and vertical resolution of an image for rendering to devices. This option specifies the image resolution to store while encoding a raster image or the canvas resolution while rendering reading vector formats such as Postscript, PDF, WMF, and SVG into a raster image.

Image resolution provides the unit of measure to apply when rendering to an output device or raster image. The default unit of measure is in dots per inch DPI. The -units option may be used to select dots per centimeter instead.

The default resolution is 72 dots per inch, which is equivalent to one point per pixel Macintosh and Postscript standard. Computer screens are normally 72 or 96 dots per inch, while printers typically support , , , or dots per inch. To determine the resolution of your display, use a ruler to measure the width of your screen in inches, and divide by the number of horizontal pixels on a x display. If the file format supports it, this option may be used to update the stored image resolution.

Note that Photoshop stores and obtains image resolution from a proprietary embedded profile. If this profile is not stripped from the image, then Photoshop will continue to treat the image using its former resolution, ignoring the image resolution specified in the standard file header. The -density option sets an attribute and does not alter the underlying raster image.

It may be used to adjust the rendered size for desktop publishing purposes by adjusting the scale applied to the pixels. To resize the image so that it is the same size at a different resolution, use the -resample option. Color depth is the number of bits per channel for each pixel. Use this option to specify the depth of raw images formats whose depth is unknown such as GRAY, RGB, or CMYK, or to change the depth of any image after it has been read.

Use -set option:deskew:auto-crop true false to auto crop the image. Render text right-to-left or left-to-right. Requires the RAQM delegate library and complex text layout. With this option, the 'overlay' image, and optionally the 'mask' image, is used as a displacement map, which is used to displace the lookup of what part of the 'background' image is seen at each point of the overlaid area.

Much like the displacement map is a 'lens' that redirects light shining through it so as to present a distorted view the original 'background' image behind it. Any perfect grey areas of the displacement map produce a zero displacement of the image. Black areas produce the given maximum negative displacement of the lookup point, while white produce a maximum positive displacement of the lookup.

Note that it is the lookup of the 'background' that is displaced, not a displacement of the image itself. Understanding this is a very important in understanding how displacement maps work. The given arguments define the maximum amount of displacement in pixels that a particular map can produce.

If the displacement scale is large enough it is also possible to lookup parts of the 'background' image that lie well outside the bounds of the displacement map itself.

That is you could very easily copy a section of the original image from outside the overlay area into the overlay area. Using '! these flags were added as of IM v6. Normally a single grayscale displacement map is provided, which with the given scaling values will determine a single direction vector in which displacements can occur positively or negatively. However, if you also specify a third image which is normally used as a mask , the composite image is used for horizontal X displacement, while the mask image is used for vertical Y displacement.

This allows you to define completely different displacement values for the X and Y directions, and allowing you to lookup any point within the scale bounds. In other words each pixel can lookup any other nearby pixel, producing complex 2 dimensional displacements, rather than a simple 1 dimensional vector displacements.

Alternatively rather than supplying two separate images, as of IM v6. As of IM v6. However areas outside the overlaid areas will not be affected.

This option is used with convert for obtaining image or font from this X server. See X 1. Define the GIF disposal image setting for images that are being created or read in. The layer disposal method defines the way each the displayed image is to be modified after the current 'frame' of an animation has finished being displayed after its 'delay' period , but before the next frame on an animation is to be overlaid onto the display.

You can also use the numbers given above, which is what the GIF format uses internally to represent the above settings. Use -set ' dispose ' method to set the image disposal method for images already in memory. The opacity of the composite image is multiplied by the given percent, then it is composited 'over' the main image. If both percentages are given, each image are dissolved to the percentages given. Distort an image, using the given method and its required arguments.

The arguments is a single string containing a list of floating point numbers separated by commas or spaces. The number of and meaning of the floating point values depends on the distortion method being used.

Many of the above distortion methods such as ' Affine ', ' Perspective ', and ' Shepards ' use a list control points defining how these points in the given image should be distorted in the destination image. Each set of four floating point values represent a source image coordinate, followed immediately by the destination image coordinate.

This produces a list of values such as For example, to warp an image using ' perspective ' distortion, needs a list of at least 4 sets of coordinates, or 16 numbers. Here is the perspective distortion of the built-in "rose:" image.

Note how spaces were used to group the 4 sets of coordinate pairs, to make it easier to read and understand. If more that the required number of coordinate pairs are given for a distortion, the distortion method is 'least squares' fitted to produce the best result for all the coordinate pairs given.

If less than the ideal number of points are given, the distort will generally fall back to a simpler form of distortion that can handles the smaller number of coordinates usually a linear ' Affine ' distortion. By using more coordinates you can make use of image registration tool to find matching coordinate pairs in overlapping images, so as to improve the 'fit' of the distortion. Of course a bad coordinate pair can also make the 'fit' worse. Caution is always advised.

Colors are acquired from the source image according to a cylindrical resampling -filter , using a special technique known as EWA resampling. This produces very high quality results, especially when images become smaller minified in the output, which is very common when using ' perspective ' distortion. For example here we view a infinitely tiled 'plane' all the way to the horizon. Note that a infinitely tiled perspective images involving the horizon can be very slow, because of the number of pixels that are compressed to generate each individual pixel close to the 'horizon'.

You can turn off EWA resampling, by specifying the special -filter setting of ' point ' recommended if you plan to use super-sampling instead. If an image generates invalid pixels , such as the 'sky' in the last example, -distort will use the current -mattecolor setting for these pixels. If you do not what these pixels to be visible, set the color to match the rest of the ground. The output image size will by default be the same as the input image.

This means that if the part of the distorted image falls outside the viewed area of the 'distorted space', those parts is clipped and lost. Setting -verbose setting, will cause -distort to attempt to output the internal coefficients, and the -fx equivalent to the distortion, for expert study, and debugging purposes. This many not be available for all distorts. This can be used either for 'super-sampling' the image for a higher quality result, or for panning and zooming around the image with appropriate viewport changes, or post-distort cropping and resizing.

Note this table uses a squared radius lookup value. This is typically only used for debugging EWA resampling. Apply a Riemersma or Floyd-Steinberg error diffusion dither to images when general color reduction is applied via an option, or automagically when saving to specific formats.

This enabled by default. Dithering places two or more colors in neighboring pixels so that to the eye a closer approximation of the images original color is reproduced. This reduces the number of colors needed to reproduce the image but at the cost of a lower level pattern of colors.

Error diffusion dithers can use any set of colors generated or user defined to an image. This will also render PostScript without text or graphic aliasing. Disabling dithering often but not always leads to faster process, a smaller number of colors, but more cartoon like image coloring. Generally resulting in 'color banding' effects in areas with color gradients. The color reduction operators -colors , -monochrome , -remap , and -posterize , apply dithering to images using the reduced color set they created.

These operators are also used as part of automatic color reduction when saving images to formats with limited color support, such as GIF: , XBM: , and others, so dithering may also be used in these cases. Alternatively you can use -random-threshold to generate purely random dither. Or use -ordered-dither to apply threshold mapped dither patterns, using uniform color maps, rather than specific color maps.

Use this option to annotate or decorate an image with one or more graphic primitives. The primitives include shapes, text, transformations, and pixel operations. The text gravity primitive only affects the placement of text and does not interact with the other primitives. It is equivalent to using the -gravity command-line option, except that it is limited in scope to the -draw option in which it appears. The shape primitives are drawn in the color specified by the preceding -fill setting.

For unfilled shapes, use -fill none. You can optionally control the stroke the "outline" of a shape with the -stroke and -strokewidth settings. A point primitive is specified by a single point in the pixel plane, that is, by an ordered pair of integer coordinates, x , y. As it involves only a single pixel, a point primitive is not affected by -stroke or -strokewidth.

A rectangle primitive is specified by the pair of points at the upper left and lower right corners. A roundRectangle primitive takes the same corner points as a rectangle followed by the width and height of the rounded corners to be removed. The circle primitive makes a disk filled or circle unfilled.

Give the center and any point on the perimeter boundary. Note, by using a translation, you can remove the need to calculate the circles edge coordinate, but can just give the radius directly:. The arc primitive is used to inscribe an elliptical segment in to a given rectangle.

An arc requires the two corners used for rectangle see above followed by the start and end angles of the arc of the segment e. The start and end points produced are then joined with a line segment and the resulting segment of an ellipse is filled.

Use ellipse to draw a partial or whole ellipse. Give the center point, the horizontal and vertical "radii" the semi-axes of the ellipse and start and end angles in degrees e. The polyline and polygon primitives require three or more points to define their perimeters.

A polyline is simply a polygon in which the final point is not stroked to the start point. When unfilled, this is a polygonal line. If the -stroke setting is none the default , then a polyline is identical to a polygon. The Bezier primitive creates a spline curve and requires three or points to define its shape. The first and last points are the knots and these points are attained by the curve, while any intermediate coordinates are control points.

If two control points are specified, the line between each end knot and its sequentially respective control point determines the tangent direction of the curve at that end. If one control point is specified, the lines from the end knots to the one control point determines the tangent directions of the curve at each end.

If more than two control points are specified, then the additional control points act in combination to determine the intermediate shape of the curve. In order to draw complex curves, it is highly recommended either to use the path primitive or to draw multiple four-point bezier segments with the start and end knots of each successive segment repeated. A path represents an outline of an object, defined in terms of moveto set a new current point , lineto draw a straight line , curveto draw a Bezier curve , arc elliptical or circular arc and closepath close the current shape by drawing a line to the last moveto elements.

Compound paths i. See Paths. Use image to composite an image with another image. Follow the image keyword with the composite operator, image location, image size, and filename:. You can use 0,0 for the image size, which means to use the actual dimensions found in the image header.

Otherwise, it is scaled to the given dimensions. See Alpha Compositing for a detailed discussion of alpha composition methods that are available.

The "special augmented compose operators" such as "dissolve" that require arguments cannot be used at present with the -draw image option. Use text to annotate an image with text. Follow the text coordinates with a string. If the string has embedded spaces, enclose it in single or double quotes.

For example, the following annotates the image with Works like magick! for an image titled bird. See the -annotate option for another convenient way to annotate an image with text. The rotate primitive rotates subsequent shape primitives and text primitives about the origin of the main image:.

The skewX and skewY primitives skew them with respect to the origin of the main image or the region. Princeton University political scientist Lauren Wright, Ph.

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Pandoc is a Haskell library for converting from one markup format to another, and a command-line tool that uses this library. Pandoc can convert between numerous markup and word processing formats, including, but not limited to, various flavors of Markdown , HTML , LaTeX and Word docx. For the full lists of input and output formats, see the --from and --to options below. Pandoc can also produce PDF output: see creating a PDF , below.

Pandoc has a modular design: it consists of a set of readers, which parse text in a given format and produce a native representation of the document an abstract syntax tree or AST , and a set of writers, which convert this native representation into a target format. Thus, adding an input or output format requires only adding a reader or writer.

Users can also run custom pandoc filters to modify the intermediate AST. Pandoc attempts to preserve the structural elements of a document, but not formatting details such as margin size. If no input-files are specified, input is read from stdin. Output goes to stdout by default. For output to a file, use the -o option:. By default, pandoc produces a document fragment. To produce a standalone document e. For more information on how standalone documents are produced, see Templates below.

If multiple input files are given, pandoc will concatenate them all with blank lines between them before parsing. Use --file-scope to parse files individually. The format of the input and output can be specified explicitly using command-line options. Thus, to convert hello.

txt from Markdown to LaTeX, you could type:. Supported input and output formats are listed below under Options see -f for input formats and -t for output formats. You can also use pandoc --list-input-formats and pandoc --list-output-formats to print lists of supported formats. If the input or output format is not specified explicitly, pandoc will attempt to guess it from the extensions of the filenames.

Thus, for example,. will convert hello. txt from Markdown to LaTeX. Pandoc uses the UTF-8 character encoding for both input and output. If your local character encoding is not UTF-8, you should pipe input and output through iconv :.

To produce a PDF, specify an output file with a. pdf extension:. By default, pandoc will use LaTeX to create the PDF, which requires that a LaTeX engine be installed see --pdf-engine below.

Alternatively, pandoc can use ConTeXt, roff ms, or HTML as an intermediate format. To do this, specify an output file with a. pdf extension, as before, but add the --pdf-engine option or -t context , -t html , or -t ms to the command line. The tool used to generate the PDF from the intermediate format may be specified using --pdf-engine.

You can control the PDF style using variables, depending on the intermediate format used: see variables for LaTeX , variables for ConTeXt , variables for wkhtmltopdf , variables for ms. When HTML is used as an intermediate format, the output can be styled using --css. To debug the PDF creation, it can be useful to look at the intermediate representation: instead of -o test.

pdf , use for example -s -o test. tex to output the generated LaTeX. You can then test it with pdflatex test. When using LaTeX, the following packages need to be available they are included with all recent versions of TeX Live : amsfonts , amsmath , lm , unicode-math , iftex , listings if the --listings option is used , fancyvrb , longtable , booktabs , graphicx if the document contains images , hyperref , xcolor , ulem , geometry with the geometry variable set , setspace with linestretch , and babel with lang.

If CJKmainfont is set, xeCJK is needed. The use of xelatex or lualatex as the PDF engine requires fontspec. lualatex uses selnolig. xelatex uses bidi with the dir variable set. If the mathspec variable is set, xelatex will use mathspec instead of unicode-math.

The upquote and microtype packages are used if available, and csquotes will be used for typography if the csquotes variable or metadata field is set to a true value. The natbib , biblatex , bibtex , and biber packages can optionally be used for citation rendering. The following packages will be used to improve output quality if present, but pandoc does not require them to be present: upquote for straight quotes in verbatim environments , microtype for better spacing adjustments , parskip for better inter-paragraph spaces , xurl for better line breaks in URLs , bookmark for better PDF bookmarks , and footnotehyper or footnote to allow footnotes in tables.

Instead of an input file, an absolute URI may be given. In this case pandoc will fetch the content using HTTP:. It is possible to supply a custom User-Agent string or other header when requesting a document from a URL:.

See Extensions below, for a list of extensions and their names. See --list-input-formats and --list-extensions , below. Note that odt , docx , epub , and pdf output will not be directed to stdout unless forced with -o -. See --list-output-formats and --list-extensions , below. Write output to FILE instead of stdout. If FILE is - , output will go to stdout , even if a non-textual format docx , odt , epub2 , epub3 is specified.

Specify the user data directory to search for pandoc data files. If this option is not specified, the default user data directory will be used. pandoc exists, it will be used for backwards compatibility. You can find the default user data directory on your system by looking at the output of pandoc --version. Data files placed in this directory for example, reference. odt , reference. docx , epub. Specify a set of default option settings. FILE is a YAML file whose fields correspond to command-line option settings.

All options for document conversion, including input and output files, can be set using a defaults file. The file will be searched for first in the working directory, and then in the defaults subdirectory of the user data directory see --data-dir. yaml extension may be omitted. See the section Defaults files for more information on the file format.

Settings from the defaults file may be overridden or extended by subsequent options on the command line. Generate a bash completion script. To enable bash completion with pandoc, add this to your. bashrc :. Write log messages in machine-readable JSON format to FILE. All messages above DEBUG level will be written, regardless of verbosity settings --verbose , --quiet. List supported styles for syntax highlighting, one per line.

See --highlight-style. Shift heading levels by a positive or negative integer. Headings cannot have a level less than 1, so a heading that would be shifted below level 1 becomes a regular paragraph.

Exception: with a shift of -N, a level-N heading at the beginning of the document replaces the metadata title. Specify the base level for headings defaults to 1. Ignore paragraphs with no content. This option is useful for converting word processing documents where users have used empty paragraphs to create inter-paragraph space. Specify classes to use for indented code blocks—for example, perl,numberLines or haskell.

Multiple classes may be separated by spaces or commas. This allows you to use the same source for formats that require different kinds of images.

Currently this option only affects the Markdown and LaTeX readers. Parse each file individually before combining for multifile documents. This will allow footnotes in different files with the same identifiers to work as expected. If this option is set, footnotes and links will not work across files. Reading binary files docx, odt, epub implies --file-scope. Specify an executable to be used as a filter transforming the pandoc AST after the input is parsed and before the output is written.

The executable should read JSON from stdin and write JSON to stdout. The name of the output format will be passed to the filter as the first argument. Filters may be written in any language. JSON exports toJSONFilter to facilitate writing filters in Haskell. Those who would prefer to write filters in python can use the module pandocfilters , installable from PyPI.

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However, as the real and imaginary components can contain negative values, this requires that IM be configured with HDRI enabled. The default is best. In all cases, if the resource request exceeds the area limit, the pixels are automagically cached to disk. The value used with Log provides a scaling factor that adjusts the curvature in the graph of the log function. Note that GHC expects the bird tracks in the first column, so indented literate code blocks e. red or 0, green or 1, etc. A single hyphen - in an attribute context is equivalent to.

These identifiers are used to provide link targets in the table of contents generated by the --toc --table-of-contents option. For example, to use the Libertine font with proportional lowercase old-style figures through the libertinus package:. See Heading identifiersbelow. This option can be used repeatedly to include multiple files in the header. Add specific global settings generally used to control coders and image processing operations. Some image colors could be approximated, therefore your image may look very different than intended, full binary options course pdf.